Bending Basics for Sheet Metal Fabrication

Learn all about the different bending techniques for sheet metal.

Metal bending is both an art and a science.

Bending processes are pivotal in sheet metal fabrication by transforming flat sheets into three-dimensional shapes. Read on to learn about the core principles, standard techniques, and how to ensure the quality of your part.

The Principles of Metal Bending

At its core, metal bending is about deforming a metal sheet along a linear axis.

The metal grain structure is altered during this process, impacting its properties and appearance. The fundamental principles to consider:

Definition: Bending transforms a flat sheet into a bent profile. This involves applying force to the metal, causing it to deform around a straight axis.

Metal Grain and Properties: Like wood has a grain, so does metal. Bending can stretch, compress, or both, altering this grain and the metal’s strength and flexibility.

Bend Radius Balance: The bend radius, or curvature, is crucial. Too tight a radius can lead to breakage, while too broad may not serve the intended purpose. The right balance is critical to maintain the structural integrity of the piece.

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Common Metal Bending TechniquesSheet metal fabrication part

Depending on your application, there are many variations of metal bending. Here are some of the most common techniques you might use.


The metal sheet is pressed between a top tool, the punch, and a V-shaped bottom tool, the die. It’s versatile and used in many applications, from building frames to brackets.

The technique offers quick setup changes, making it ideal for projects with varying specifications. However, the depth of the bend can be limited by the machinery and the chosen die width. Springback is a frequent challenge, requiring compensation.


This technique forms a ‘U’ shape, pressing the metal sheet similarly to V-bending but with a U-shaped die. It’s perfect for creating deep channels or structures where a V-bend might be insufficient.

However, this method requires precise tooling for consistency and, like V-bending, is subject to springback.


A high-tonnage method that does more imprints a clear, sharp line on the bend. This is useful for applications that demand specific, tight bends, like certain electronic components or intricate decorative pieces.

Coining requires much force, thus consuming more energy. It’s less versatile compared to V and U bending.

Rotary Bending

This method uses rotating dies or rollers to bend the metal. This eliminates direct, forceful contact between the tool and the metal. It’s useful for projects requiring consistent, repeated patterns or long, sweeping bends. Rotary bending is less suitable for very tight bends and might require more setup time for specialized bends.

Air bending

Instead of pressing the metal fully into a die, as with V or U bending, the sheet is floated above, making contact only at the bend point. This is ideal for situations where the angle is simple enough and when versatility is needed.

This is less precise in terms of the resulting angle due to variable springback, but it allows bending with a single set of tooling.

Common Challenges in Metal Bending

While bending seems straightforward, some issues can arise. Fortunately, MakerVerse’s fully-vetted supply chain and in-house experts ensure the quality of your part.

Springback: When metal is bent, it tends to bounce back a little toward its original shape once the bending pressure is released. This phenomenon is called springback. Predicting the amount of springback and adjusting the bend angle accordingly is crucial to fix this. This might involve over-bending the material slightly so that it springs back to the desired angle.

Cracking: If bent too sharply, some metals, especially those that are brittle or not ductile enough, may crack at the bend. Using a larger bend radius or annealing the metal beforehand can reduce the risk. Proper material selection is also essential. Our experts are happy to help with design feedback and material selection.

Warping: Uneven stresses during the bending process can cause the metal to warp or deform undesirably. Ensuring even force distribution, proper tool alignment, and consistent material properties can help mitigate warping.

Surface Damage: The physical pressure during bending, especially with certain techniques, can mar the surface of the metal, leading to aesthetic and structural issues. Using films or coatings during bending, opting for less abrasive bending techniques, or post-process finishing can keep the surface pristine.

Inaccurate Angles: Achieving the desired angle is challenging, especially when dealing with variable material properties or machine inaccuracies. Regular machine calibration, using advanced tooling with angle feedback, and compensating for known material behaviors can increase accuracy.

Material Thickness Variations: Inconsistent material thickness can lead to unpredictable bending results. Quality checks of raw material and selecting high-grade sheets can ensure consistent thickness, leading to more predictable bends.

Tool Wear: Repeated bending, especially with harder metals, can lead to tool wear. Worn tools might not produce clean bends and can introduce defects. Regular maintenance, wear-resistant tooling materials, and rotating tools can prolong tool life and ensure consistent results.

The Future of Metal Bending

From the simple bends in a paper clip to the intricate curves of architectural marvels, bending shapes our world. It’s only getting better. Advances in robot-assisted bending, better software, and more eco-friendly practices all make this critical component of sheet metal fabrication increasingly useful.

You’re in the right place if you want access to sheet metal fabrication services. With lead times starting at 14 days, we can get you your parts quickly and with the highest quality.